The Umami of Dashi

sukiyaki2
A bowl of Sukiyaki

In recent years, much has been said about the presence of a fifth taste. No longer was food described as just salty, sweet, sour or bitter, it is now proven that there is a mysterious fifth taste – the taste loosely called as “savory” or more specifically called umami. Umami is a term derived from the Japanese word for “delicious”.
My tastebuds are drawn more to umami-rich food. For a while I thought I was just being too picky because dishes that otherwise tasted delicious to most people seemed “lacking” in satisfaction to me.
I grew up in a household where MSG did not have a bad rap for its anecdotal side effects, so the food I ate was highly savory. Even when the 2004 version of Harold Mc Gee’s “On Food and Cooking” said: “MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people even in large amounts”, the stigma remains. As more restaurants quit using MSG, the taste of the savory diminished and the sugar and cloying sauces took over.

I myself do not use MSG. I admit having a packet of it in my pantry for emergency purposes, but I’ve used it maybe once or twice in the past 5 years. Most of the seasoning sauces I use have enough of the stuff anyway. As I’ve found out in my quest for the savory, there are other ingredients that lends itself to the fifth taste.

For example: soy sauce.

The “Hungry” Hubby and I have had long standing arguments about soy sauce. I simply love the stuff and possess different grades: thick, thin, mushroom-flavored (my favorite), seasoning etc. stashed away in my pantry. But HH looks at it in a distorted way to the point of saying that it bastardizes food and is a way to mask bad taste. He has since shut-up when I pointed out David Lebovitz post about roast chicken and how even French chefs use it as a secret ingredient. Let’s put it this way: if he argues with me some more, he can cook his own food. πŸ˜‰

Even if I am Chinese, I consider Japanese food as my favorite cuisine, so much so that I was beginning to think that I was Japanese in a previous life. I’ve since fully embraced the reason…

Umami.

In the Times Online article, “Umami: The mystery of the fifth taste”, I’ve discovered that there are now umami summits where Japanese chefs come and teach top chefs how to use dashi – the key that unlocks the fifth taste of umami.
Renowned chef, Heston Blumenthal (The Fat Duck) had used the principle for years to balance the flavor of his dishes.

Thankfully, for HH’s sake, parmesan cheese is second to Kombu ( the seaweed used for dashi) in glutamate levels that are responsible for the taste of umami.

I feel vindicated too, for my love of ketchup and soy sauce. Here is a list of the big 10 of y-umaminess with italic side comments from yours truly.

1. Tomatoes (sun-dried and ketchup) => rah! rah! for ketchup, baby!
2. Wild mushrooms (dried shitake) => I win another argument with HH because I prefer dried shitake over the fresh ones.
3. Rich bouillons => wonder how Ruhlman feels about this because I’m about to come out of the closet and yell “I love Knorr chicken bouillons!”
4. Cured and smoked meats
5. Cheese (Parmesan and ripe blue cheese) => don’t like blue cheese but maybe because I’ve been buying the wrong kind.
6. Fish and shellfish (anchovies and tuna) => yes! Score again for the anchovies, ya honey? πŸ˜‰
7. seaweed
8. soy sauce => ‘nuff said
9. oriental fish sauce => this is another secret ingredient that transcends Southeast Asian cuisine. But ‘nuff said about this too, or HH will think I made this list up.
10. Sake
 

dashiumami
Bonito flakes and kombu – the components of dashi

In my “umami” analysis I know now why Sukiyaki has always been one of my favorite Japanese dishes. Judging from its components, it scores four from the umami-rich list: shitake mushrooms, soy sauce, seaweed and fish (bonito flakes, the latter two combines to form dashi).

Pick up any Japanese cookbook and you will see that dashi is the cornerstone that builds the legend of this cuisine. Dashi is easier to make than you think. It’s the fastest stock to cook but spoils rather easily. I’ve never tried freezing dashi or used dashi-no-moto (instant dashi) which most homemakers in Japan use. I’ve always read that dashi from scratch is still the best.

My recipe for dashi comes from Japanese Cooking, a simple art. And I must commend Marc of Norecipes for a sukiyaki recipe that was spot on compared to the best sukiyaki I’ve tasted in Manila.
 

shirataki
Shirataki noodles – wonder diet food?

I’m also loving the use of fiber-rich, low-calorie (yes, close to zero) shirataki noodles. It is tasteless by itself but can be flavored by steeping it in the sukiyaki base. I parboiled the noodles for two minutes before using.

sukiyaki1
Ingredients, after simmered in sukiyaki stock

Primary Dashi

1 quart (1 Liter) cold water
1 ounce (30 g) giant kelp (kombu)
1 ounce (30 g) dried bonito flakes (hana katsuo)

To prepare: Fill a medium-sized soup pot with 1 quart of (1 L) cold water and put in the kelp. Heat, uncovered so as to reach the boiling point in about 10 minutes.
Important: Kelp emits a strong odor if it is boiled, so remove kombu just before water boils.
Insert your thumbnail into the fleshiest part of the kelp. If it is soft, sufficient flavor has been obtained. If tough, return it to the pot for 1 or 2 minutes. Keep from boiling by adding approximately 1/4 cup cold water.
After removing the konbu bring the stock to a full boil. Add 1/4 cup cold water to bring temperature down quickly and immediately add bonito flakes. No need to stir. Bring to a full boil and remove from the heat at once. If the bonito flakes boil for more than a few seconds, the stock becomes too strong, a bit bitter, and is not suitable for use in clear soups. If you make this mistake, all is not lost, use the stock as base for thick soups, in simmered foods, and so on.
Allow the flakes to start to settle to the bottom of the pot (30 seconds to 1 minute). Remove foam, then filter through a cheesecloth-line sieve. Reserve the bonito flakes and kelp for secondary dashi.

Sukiyaki

from Marc at Norecipes

Thinly sliced marbled beef
green onions
dried shitake mushrooms
firm cubed tofu
shirataki noodles
baby bok choy

Broth
1 cup dashi
1/2 cup mirin
6 tbsp. soy sauce
4 tbsp. brown sugar

Combine the ingredients for the broth in the pan. You should have at least 1/2 an inch of broth. Double the recipe as necessary. Bring to a boil and then lower to a medium simmer. Start with the green onions or other aromatic vegetables and transfer to a serving dish as they cook. Add the beef last and cook through but do not overcook it or it will become tough. Assemble the simmered ingredients in a bowl and add sukiyaki broth.
 

Cooking Notes:

I was very pleased with the flavor of the sukiyaki. I doubled Marc’s recipe and added dashi (and adjusted the rest of the seasoning) as needed to keep enough broth for simmering. My beef slices were not sliced correctly because I didn’t realize that the beef I bought was already cut up into cubes.
As a testament to the wonderful umami flavor of this dish, the HH asked: “This recipe is Japanese?” as he slurped every bit of sukiyaki from his bowl.
I don’t blame him. With the ubiquity of sushi restaurants where I live, it’s hard to convince the uninitiated that Japanese food is more than just sushi and hibachi. I really hope that a Yakitori restaurant would open here in RVA, but you know what, I might as well make it myself.

 

18 thoughts on “The Umami of Dashi

  1. Wow. You and HH have quite a debate going on. I’m definitely one for the sweet but do love blue Cheese. Try Colsten Basset Stilton between November and January. Flavor wise, it’s the best time to buy it and I think it will change your mind about blue cheese.

  2. Love this post,Veron. For me, the fifth dimension can be achieved with really really good quality fish sauce! But that stuff is hard to find and can be expensive’

  3. thanks veron,

    enjoyed reading πŸ™‚ this allot!

    and learned someting: never seen the Shirataki noodles ever. have seen the gray-spotted gel in our japanese-store. i will ask for these noodles next time. THX

  4. We have the umami invasion here but they use that MSG product which are promoted by celebrity chefs. I definitely have soy sauce and I don’t think I could live without it. Sukiyaki makes me hungry right now. Okay, when the weather cools down. πŸ™‚

  5. No wonder I’ve been drawn to your top ten! Umami is definitely addictive isn’t it? Thanks for the sukiyaki recipe. I was intrigued that you compared Marc’s recipe (and he is a great cook!) to the best sukiyaki you tried in Manila rather than maybe the US – is there a reason? Do you think sukiyaki in Manila is better? In any case, I’ll have to try it!

  6. Maybe I was Asian in a past life (instead of just a boring white girl)?

    Ketchup is honestly one of the best things on earth, I think that soy sauce makes EVERYTHING better, and parmesan cheese has always been my favorite, and I think buillon is the best (I just bought my first jar of beef buillon paste–so much better than knorr cubes).

    I just recently discovered a love for blue cheese (when combined with crispy bacon—I melt). πŸ™‚

  7. El – I’ll remember that cheese in November. Thanks for the reco.
    Anh – I do love 3 crabs brand.
    Trissa – Where I live, Japanese restaurants=sushi or hibachi. Hardly find good japanese fare like donburis etc. Had a great sukiyaki at Nihon Bashitei.
    RADgirl – There is a great beef bouillon paste in a jar with a chef hat but I couldn’t find it any longer. Have you seen it?

  8. Humph, I’m still upset that a certain author (who shall remain anonymous) wrote about everything a chef must know, yet left out soy sauce. There’s more to the world of food than France!
    Anyway, I love sukiyaki – it’s my favorite kinda healthy meal (sukiyakidon to be exact).

  9. Love this. Learn a new word….umami…haha. I love Japanese food. I’m all for your list of the big 10!! I love sukiyaki too…healthy food….mmm

  10. Hi Veron, how were the noodles? Do they soak up a lot of the liquid from the soup? I just bought a packet of the stuff and was looking for a use for them.

  11. limecake- the noodles are not big on taste but they do get flavored a bit by the broth. I think they are there to add texture.

  12. No wonder I love most of the items on the list… never realized parmesan cheese was high on umami! Two other of my favorite cheeses must also be very umami… cantal & bucheron.
    I make my own dashi, too, to make miso soup. I always add dried shitakes to it & have been experimenting with different misos. I love the chickpea miso. (Btw, my himalayan cat loves the chickpea miso soup, too, and drives me crazy for it!) I usually add tofu, scallions & various soba noodles. I hadn’t heard of the shirataki noodles, will look for those! We recently got an H Mart here, so I’m hoping they have them. I think I was Japanese in a former life, too. πŸ™‚ This sukiyaki sounds yummy, can’t wait to try it!

  13. Hi! Great blog! This is a grwat find. I stumbled upon it looking for local availability of shiritaki noodles. I excitingly look forward to making the sukiyaki recipe here! πŸ™‚

    Can you point me where I could buy those noodles in Manila?

    Thanks much!

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